Tag Archives: David Ricardo

Market land (natural resources)

Land markets or market natural resources is a market that connects sellers with buyers to trade land or land transaction. Production factors such as land rents get yield.

Theory of land rent
a. According to David Ricardo, high or low ground rent will be determined by soil fertility. Therefore distinguish soil fertility, then this theory is also called the “Theory of Differential”.
b. According to Von Thunen, in addition to the high and low land rent is determined by differences in soil fertility is also determined by the lay of the land far away or close to the market.

 

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Absolute Advantage Theory and the Theory of Comparative Advantage

The theory of absolute advantage proposed by Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations. Absolute advantage is the advantage gained by a country from the results of specializing. Absolute advantage in the production of goods occurs because of the cost it takes to produce it absolutely easier than any other country.

The theory of comparative advantage proposed by David Ricardo. There are times when a country has an absolute advantage in producing all kinds of goods traded, but there is always the potential benefits to be gained in international trade for the relative costs for producing goods between a country to another is different.

 

The theory of international trade

There are several theories of international trade, as follows:
a. The Theory of Merchantilist
mercantilism is a system of economic policy adopted in mainland Europe around the 16th century and 17. characters such as Colbert, thomas But, sir josiah child, and so forth. The essence of the teachings of mercantilism is the role of government want the widest in the economy in order to achieve a surplus of exports over imports in foreign trade so that they can continue to build reserves of precious metals.

b. The Classical Theory of
assumptions made ​​by the classics are:
a. traded two goods and two countries that trade
b. production costs are considered fixed
c. transportation costs are ignored
d. no change technology
e. labor theory of value based
f. free movement of factors of production in the country but can not transcend national boundaries
g. competition in markets for goods and factor markets
h. distribution of fixed income.
Classical theory proposed by Adam Smith and David Ricardo.

 

Theory of land rent by David Ricardo and Von Thunen

According to David Ricardo, who proposed the theory of differential rent high and low income that land rent is determined by the difference in fertility of the soil, the more fertile the soil, the higher the rent.

According to Von Thunen, who have the opinion that the high or low rent is not only determined by the difference in soil fertility alone but is also determined by the difference lay of the land from the market.

 

Wage theory by David Ricardo, Adam Smith, and Ferdinand Lasalle

According to David Ricardo and Adam Smith who proposed the theory of natural wages or reasonably, that the high and low wage rates determined by 2 (two) factors, namely:
a. Minimum living costs of workers with family, this is called wage wage wage natural or nature. According to him, high and low cost of living is determined by the place, time and customs of the population.
b. Demand and supply of labor, this is called the market wage. According to the high and low market wages will move around the natural wage.

According to Ferdinand Lasalle from mashab socialist who argued about the iron wage theory, he argues that labor does not contain any expectations and will not rise above the minimum cost of living. Therefore he called wage iron, which means that the average wage of workers or workers with limited minimum cost of living with his family.

 

Theory of income entrepreneurs by Schumpeter, Karl Marx, and David Ricardo

According to Schumpeter who proposed the theory of dynamic innovation or profit, that profit entrepreneurs is retribution for his ability to entrepreneurs in developing business with new combinations of factors of production, namely: the creation of new goods quality, the use of new production methods, marketing area opening recently, the discovery of new economic resources, the use of marketing techniques and new promotional techniques, the use of the new management system. The combined use of new more efficient the larger it will affect the formation of wages or income entrepreneurs. Therefore, the use of a new combination is closely related to courage employers to bear the risk of the Schumpeter also agreed with other economists that included a risk premium as an element of revenue.

According to Karl Marx, who proposed the theory of surplus value, that profit entrepreneurs is more than the value of labor that is not paid by the employer to the worker.

According to David Ricardo, who proposed the theory of residues, that profit is the residual income entrepreneurs net of costs.

 

Teori sewa tanah menurut David Ricardo dan Von Thunen

Menurut David Ricardo, yang mengajukan teori sewa tanah diferensial berpendapatan bahwa tinggi rendahnya sewa tanah ditentukan oleh perbedaan kesuburan tanah, makin subur suatu tanah, maka akan semakin tinggi harga sewanya.

Menurut Von Thunen, yang mempunyai pendapat bahwa tinggi atau rendahnya sewa tanah itu tidak hanya ditentukan oleh perbedaan kesuburan tanah saja akan tetapi juga ditentukan oleh perbedaan letak tanah dari pasar.

 

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Teori laba pengusaha menurut Schumpeter, Karl Marx, dan David Ricardo

Menurut Schumpeter yang mengemukakan teori inovasi atau laba dinamis, bahwa laba pengusaha merupakan balas jasa kepada pengusaha atas kemampuannya dalam mengembangkan usaha dengan kombinasi baru faktor-faktor produksi, yaitu: adanya pembuatan barang-barang baru yang berkualitas, penggunaan metode produksi baru, pembukaan daerah pemasaran baru, penemuan sumber-sumber ekonomi baru, penggunaan teknik pemasaran dan teknik promosi yang baru, penggunaan sistem manajemen yang baru. Penggunaan kombinasi baru secara lebih efisien akan berpengaruh semakin besar pula dalam pembentukan upah atau laba pengusaha. Oleh karena dalam penggunaan kombinasi baru itu berkaitan erat dengan keberanian pengusaha untuk menanggung risiko maka Schumpeter juga sependapat dengan ahli ekonomi lainnya yang memasukkan premi risiko sebagai unsur pendapatan usaha.

Menurut Karl Marx, yang mengemukakan teori nilai lebih, bahwa laba pengusaha merupakan nilai lebih dari hasil kerja buruh yang tidak dibayarkan oleh pengusaha kepada buruh.

Menurut David Ricardo, yang mengemukakan teori residu, bahwa laba pengusaha merupakan sisa pendapatan setelah dikurangi dengan biaya.

 

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Teori perdagangan internasional

Ada beberapa macam teori perdagangan internasional, yaitu sebagai berikut:
a. Teori dari Kaum Merkantilis
merkantilisme adalah suatu sistem kebijaksanaan ekonomi yang dianut di daratan eropa sekitar abad ke-16 dan 17. tokoh-tokohnya antara lain colbert, thomas mun, sir josiah child, dan lain sebagainya. Inti pokok dari ajaran merkantilisme adalah menginginkan peranan pemerintah yang seluas-luasnya dalam bidang perekonomian supaya dapat tercapai surplus ekspor di atas impor pada perdagangan luar negeri sehingga dapat terus memupuk cadangan logam mulia.

b. Teori dari Kaum Klasik
asumsi yang diajukan oleh kaum klasik adalah:
a.    yang diperdagangkan dua barang dan yang berdagang dua negara
b.    ongkos produksi dianggap tetap
c.    ongkos transportasi diabaikan
d.    tidak ada perubahan teknologi
e.    teori nilai berdasarkan tenaga kerja
f.    faktor produksi bebas bergerak di dalam negeri tetapi tidak dapat melampaui batas negara
g.    adanya persaingan di pasar barang dan pasar faktor produksi
h.    distribusi pendapatan tetap.
Teori klasik dikemukakan oleh Adam Smith dan David Ricardo.

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